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A recent Justice Canada study estimated the cost of one type of intimate partner violence, spousal violence, on Canadian society at .4 billion in 2009 (Zhang et al. Most of these costs were related to victim costs, such as pain and suffering, counselling expenses and legal fees for divorce, while the next highest costs were borne by third parties (, police, courts, corrections).
For the purposes of this section, police-reported data are used to examine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence coming to the attention of police in Canada.
Text begins Intimate partner violence ranges from emotional abuse, such as name calling, to repeated physical or sexual assaults and homicide (Heise and Garcia-Moreno 2002).
Recognized as a public health issue, intimate partner violence can have far-reaching consequences on not only the direct victim, but also on families, communities and society at large.
In other words, the rate of dating violence would be higher if it was calculated based on the actual population of dating partners.
To accurately calculate rates, it is necessary to first determine the population that best reflects the population at risk.
Calculating rates among particular types of intimate partner unions, such as common-law and legally married unions, as well as specific relationship statuses, namely current versus previous partnership, is limited to the Homicide Survey.
This is because the accused-victim relationship categories within the Incident-based Survey do not match population data.
Overall, unreported incidents were generally less severe and less likely to involve physical injury, compared to those incidents of spousal violence that came to the attention of police (Sinha 2013).
Acts of financial and emotional abuse that do not reach the criminal threshold are also outside the scope of the current analysis.
Rates generally declined with increasing age and were higher for women in every age group.