Common lead dating
Oxidation under alkaline conditions is easier to effect and is favoured by the formation of the soluble species of lead in the 2 oxidation state.Lead oxide (Pb O ion) is among the stronger oxidizing agents in acidic solution, but it is comparatively weak in alkaline solution.The ease of oxidation of lead is enhanced by complex formation.The electrodeposition of lead is best effected from aqueous solutions containing lead hexafluorosilicate and hexafluorosilicic acid.
Because lead effectively absorbs electromagnetic radiation of short wavelengths, it is used as a protective shielding around nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, X-ray equipment, and containers used for transporting and storing radioactive materials.
Additional refining removes impurities present in the lead bullion produced by either process.
Almost half of all refined lead is recovered from recycled scrap.
Molten lead is an excellent solvent and collector for elemental silver and gold.
The structural applications of lead are limited by its low tensile and fatigue strengths and its tendency to flow even when only lightly loaded.
Lead (Pb), a soft, silvery white or grayish metal in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table.