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Many dinoflagellate species can cause blooms and some of them produce potent toxins that cause negative impacts for human health, aquaculture and marine ecosystems (Zingone and Enevoldsen, 2000). doi: 10.3354/ame01771 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Velo-Suárez, L., Brosnahan, M. Currently, three groups of zoosporic parasitoids with different phylogenetic origin are known to infect dinoflagellates, ‘Amoebophrya ceratii’ complex (Syndiniales), Parvilucifera (Perkinsids) and Dinomyces (Chytrid), moreover, environmental molecular surveys have unveiled a high hidden diversity amongst these groups (Guillou et al., 2008; Chambouvet et al., 2014). Genetic and phenotypic diversity characterization of natural populations of the parasitoid Parvilucifera sinerae. In the case of Parvilucifera parasitoids, although a generalist in terms of the number of species they are able to infect, intra and inter-species variability still exists at the level of host susceptibility or infectivity (Figueroa et al., 2008; Råberg et al., 2014; Turon et al., 2015). Marine dinoflagellates show induced life-history shifts to escape parasite infection in response to water-borne signals. The extent to which Parvilucifera parasitoids show preferences for certain hosts has not been fully investigated. doi: 10.4467/16890027AP.14.006.1443 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Toth, G. Alternatively, it may increase competition, leading to species exclusion. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

The effect generalist parasitoids exert on a community is strongly dependent on the degree of host specificity.

Dinomyces and Parvilucifera species (with the exception of P.

prorocentri) have been described as generalist parasitoids, able to infect a wide range of hosts within dinoflagellates, including toxic species (Garcés et al., 2013a; Lepelletier et al., 2014a,b).

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Marine microbial interactions involving eukaryotes and their parasites play an important role in shaping the structure of phytoplankton communities.

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Further research is required in order to understand the potential effects this parasitoid may have in marine microbial communities. Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species? doi: 10.1371/0051012 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Skovgaard, A. Dirty tricks in the plankton: diversity and role of marine parasitic protists.

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