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After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age.
During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities.
They are citizens of Denmark, although not of the European Union. They had split from the related Aleut group about 4,000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants, possibly related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, and developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.
The Tuniit were thought to have become completely extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were likely the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit.
The Nunatukavummuit people usually moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. In other areas south of the tree line, Native American and First Nations cultures were well established.
The culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors.
The Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut and Nunatu Kavut in Labrador, and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic Ocean.
Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density.
But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland.
The changing climate forced the Inuit to work their way south, forcing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line.
The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut.
South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in Nunatu Kavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s.
By the mid-16th century, Basque whalers and fishermen were already working the Labrador coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as the one that has been excavated at Red Bay, Labrador.