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6 1983 NEVADA BLM CULTURAL RESOURCES PUBLICATIONS Technical Reports No. Summit Lake was the major body of water in the area and would have maintained a good per- centage of the population. People came together temporarily and there were no permanent villages . In 1965 the University of California, Berkeley, began a field school in the Humboldt Sink, under the direction of Heizer, but limited work was done at 26Chl5 in that year. This was the last major battle fought on the Black Rock Desert and only minor incidents of Indian trouble occurred after the Cavalry's victory in this battle (Wheeler 19-136). A small band of Shoshone killed a group of stockmen in Little High Rock Canyon. The boundary extended from Disaster Peak to the Oregon-Nevada border and south to the Black Rock Desert. The Quinn River was the major water re- source for this group. SUBSISTENCE AND SETTLEMENT The aboriginal populations in the Winnemucca District were hunting- gathering bands heavily dependent on annual seed production. Also in 1950, Heizer, Elsasser and Baumhoff collected a radiocarbon sample from a burial, which yielded a date of 733 B.( 250 (Grosscup 19). This furious battle, which was fought in a dense cloud of freezing fog, resulted in most of the Indians being killed and the capture of the few survivors. 5 Test Excavations at Painted Cave, Pershing County, Nevada . The pollen records from O'Malley shelter and Osgood swamp also show changes at this time, and it is a time of peat growth in the spring-fed marshes of the Amargosa Desert. Peace talks were eventually initiated but conflicts between Indians and whites continued elsewhere (Angel 189-64). Hufford, daughter of two of the original settlers of the valley described some of the diffi- culties her parents experienced with the Indians in those early days: The indians (sic) seem to have no respect for private property, if it belonged to a tybo. This includes plant remains from cave deposits and pollen from lakes and bogs of northwestern Utah. A second battle in June of 1860 ended in victory for the whites and left the Pyramid Lake Pciutes in a famished and homeless state. Major ethnographical work was conducted in the area during the 1930's by the University of California and other institutions. Steward states in his discussion of the Northern Paiute that they were culturally the same as the Western Shoshone which he dealt with in the Plateau book. Humboldt Lake-bed Sites While working at Lovelock Cave in 1912, L. Loud, of the University of California, Berkeley, investigated 17 open sites around the margin of the Humboldt Sink. Ostensibly in an attempt to arrest Indian rustlers, a U. Cavalry division slaughtered 29 Indians, including a number of women and children, at their camp on Winnemucca Lake on March 14, 1865. Cavalry efforts to hunt down the Indian raiders were fruitless and concluded with the death of the leader of this campaign, Captain Mc Dermit, in an ambush near the Quinn River in August 1865. An Indian named Black Rock Tom, who was known by the white steed he rode and whose strong- hold was in the Black Rock Desert, apparently was the leader of many of the 111 attacks. Inter- marriage occurred freely between the two groups and there is little evid- ence of hostility. Only a small portion of Winnemucca Valley is in the Winnemucca District. Population figures for the Northern Paiute in the Winnemucca District area are approximately 7-10,000 based on the accounts of the early explorers and travelers . "CULTURE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS XIV NORTHERN PAIUTE", Anthrooological Records 4:3, Univ. Steward (1938) in his Basin- Plateau Aboriginal Socio -Political Groups . Several Caucasians were murdered by Indian raiders during this period and rustling was also a frequent occurrence in the area. Climatic Change The climate in the Great Basin radically changed towards modern conditions in the terminal phases of the Pleistocene. Collection and Archive Materials University of California, Berkeley Archeological Research Facility. Another segment of the population acquired horses and formed mobile predatory bands.
Nancy Botti, Peggy Mc Guckian, Robert York and Mark Henderson (June 1979). The accounts of early explorers and ethnographers do not make explicit the areas where each group lived, but existing information puts the line roughly from the Golconda-Iron Point area north to the Idaho-Oregon border and south along the Tobin Range (Steward and Wheeler-Voegelin 1974). This group lived in the area along Humboldt Lake and bounded the Shoshone on the east. The territory of this group included Job's Peak which is the mythical center of the Northern Paiute creation near Stillwater, Nevada. The valley has been shamefully neglected for so fine a farming country." (Humboldt-Regis ter, September 1, 1866).
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BL NE BLM LIBRARY 88000265 D MANAGEMENT PREHISTORY and HISTORY of t\)e WINNEMUCCA DISTRICT A Cultural Resources Literature Overview REGINA C. A few families roamed together moving through a seasonal round. 25 More substantial excavations were made at NV-Pe-67, another of the Humboldt Lake-bed sites in 19. Reservations Establishment of reservations during the 1870s and 80s was effective in removing the majority of Indians from the public eye.
1 Studies at Adams -Mc Gill Reservoir: Exercises in Applying Small Project Data to Archaeological Research . The food resources in the District area are scarce and the population density was extremely low. In 1968 Heizer and Clewlow published an analysis of over 1,800 projectile points from this site. The Indians, led by Sho- shone Mike Daggett, were tracked across northwestern Nevada by a posse, and on February 26, 1911, were all killed or captured on the Rabbit Creek Fork of Kelley Creek north of Golconda (Mack 1968; Hyde 1973).
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