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3 6 Introduction 37 Defining the De Facto State 37 Theoretical Criteria to Distinguish the De Facto State from Other Entities 39 The Ethical and Political Logics Behind the De Facto State 58 Sovereign States, De Facto States, and the Criteria for Statehood 60 Sovereign States, De Facto States, and Their Limitations 68 Conclusion 71 Chapter Three - Eritrea and the LTTE-Controlled Parts of Sri Lanka Introduction Eritrea Before Independence Background Information Eritrea as a De Facto State Territory Relations With Society Capabilities Relations With International Society Tamil Eelam, the LTTE-Controlled Areas of Sri Lanka Background Information Tamil Eelam as a De Facto State Territory Relations With Society Capabilities Relations With International Society 73 74 75 75 80 80 82 86 88 90 90 101 101 106 108 110 Chapter Four ~ Somaliland and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 111 The Republic of Somaliland 112 V Background Information 112 Somaliland as a De Facto State 119 Territory 119 Relations With Society 121 Capabilities 124 Relations With International Society 127 The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 128 Background Information 128 Northern Cyprus as a De Facto State 139 Territory 139 Relations With Society 141 Capabilities 145 Relations With International Society 149 Conclusion 150 Chapter Five — Macro-Level Factors Implicated in the Birth of De Facto States 152 Introduction 153 The Changing Normative Environment on Territory 153 Changing Conceptions of Sovereignty 158 From Empirical to Juridical Statehood 161 Recognition Policies 163 Weak State Security Dynamics 169 Self-Determination 176 Conclusion 184 Chapter Six — Micro-Level Factors Implicated in the Birth of De Facto States 189 Introduction 190 The Different Etiologies of Quasi-States and De Facto States 190 Foreign Invasions 191 External Political Interest in Creating a De Facto State 194 External Humanitarian Interest in Creating a De Facto State 199 Indigenous Secession Attempts 204 State Collapse 208 The Role of the U N in Freezing the Status Quo 212 The Demonstration Effect of Other De Facto States 216 Conclusion 220 Chapter Seven — The De Facto State in International Society 222 Introduction 223 The De Facto State's Impact on International Society 223 How Does International Society Deal With the De Facto State?

228 Three Potential Alternatives 234 International Law and the De Facto State 241 Does the De Facto State Have Utility for International Society?

" Third, the study evaluates the potential impact of this phenomenon on the academic study of international relations.

In particular, it assesses the significance of de facto statehood for international theory as a whole and for specific theoretical perspectives such as realism, rationalism, feminism, and post-modernism.

Uli Rauch provided me with vital technical computer assistance.

For their contributions to my mental and physical health, I would also like to thank the members and staff of the Nanaksar Gurdwara and the Marpole-Oakridge Fitness Center.

Don Payzant and Donald Arnone were extremely helpful in regard to Somaliland's currency, as was Suzanne Hirsch in regard to Cypriot tourism.

The quasi-state's empirical limitations, however, do not detract from its de jure sovereign legitimacy which is externally guaranteed by the other members of international society.

249 Conclusion 259 vi Chapter Eight — Potential Transformations of the De Facto State 262 Introduction 263 Three Different Types of Military Defeat 263 Continued Existence as a De Facto State 269 Evolution into Some Alternate Status Short of Sovereign Statehood 272 Successful Graduation to Sovereign Statehood 285 What Determines Success or Failure in Securing Recognition 290 Conclusion 293 Chapter Nine — The De Facto State and International Theory 296 Introduction 297 International Theory and the De Facto State 297 The De Facto State and Specific Theoretical Traditions 304 Realism 304 Rationalism 306 Revolutionism 309 Feminism 312 Critical or Post-Modern Approaches 315 International Law 318 Conclusion 320 Chapter Ten ~ Conclusion 322 Main Objectives 323 Key Findings of This Study 323 Future Prospects for These Entities 327 What, if Anything, Can or Should Be Done About This Phenomenon?

332 Select Bibliography 347 List of Tables Table # 1 — Theoretical Criteria Table #2- The Diversity of Facto States viii List of Abbreviations Used in This Study A D B — Asian Development Bank AIT ~ American Institute in Taiwan APEC — Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation C C N A A ~ Coordination Council for North American Affairs CSCE — Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now OSCE) DRET ~ Democratic Republic of East Timor EC ~ European Community (now EU) E C J ~ European Court of Justice E L F ~ Eritrean Liberation Front E O K A — Ethniki Orgdnosis Kipriakou Agonos E P L A — Eritrean People's Liberation Army (military wing of EPLF) EPLF — Eritrean People's Liberation Front (now PFDJ) EPRDF — Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front EPRLF ~ Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front E U ~ European Union (formerly EC) F M L N — Faribundo Marti National Liberation Front FRETELIN ~ Frente Revolucianaria de Timor Leste Independente GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (now WTO) GNP — Gross national product ICRC — International Committee of the Red Cross IMF — International Monetary Fund IPKF — Indian Peace-Keeping Force (in Sri Lanka) JVP — Janatha Vimukti Peramuna L T T E — Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam N A T O ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization OAS ~ Organization of American States O A U ~ Organization of African Unity OSCE ~ Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (formerly CSCE) P A ~ Palestinian Authority PAIGC — Partido Ajricano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde PFDJ ~ People's Front for Democracy and Justice (formerly EPLF) PGE — Provisional Government of Eritrea (1991 - 1993) PLO — Palestinian Liberation Organization PLOTE — People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam PRC — People's Republic of China ROC — Republic of China (Taiwan) SADR — Saharan Arab Democratic Republic SEF ~ Straits Exchange Foundation SNL — Somali National League S N M — Somali National Movement SPM — Somali Patriotic Movement SWAPO - South West Africa People's Organization TELO ~ Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization ix TFSC - Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (1975 - 1983) T M T ~ Turk Mukavemet Teskilati TPLF — Tigrean People's Liberation Front T R A — Taiwan Relations Act TRNC — Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983 - present) TULF — Tamil United Liberation Front UDI — Unilateral declaration of independence U K — United Kingdom U N — United Nations UNDP ~ United Nations Development' Program UNFICYP ~ United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus UNITA — Uniao National para a Independencia Total de Angola U N O S O M — United Nations Operation in Somalia US — United States USAID — United States Agency for International Development use — United Somali Congress WTO ~ World Trade Organization (formerly GATT) Acknowledgments This dissertation could not have been written without the support and cooperation of a number of people both inside and outside of the academic community.

For their various forms of assistance, I am eternally grateful.

In particular, I would like to thank the inter-library loan staff at the University of British Columbia.

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It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.

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